How to Write a 12-Tone Composition

Twelve-tone is a 20th-century compositional technique created by Arnold Schoenberg.  Rather than setting a piece of music in a diatonic key, the goal of 12-tone music is to use all 12 chromatic pitches equally.  To create a 12-tone composition, follow these steps:

  1. Begin with a 12x12 grid.  Label your grid as in the example below:

    Original Row
      Inverted Retrograde  
  2. Next, arrange the 12 chromatic pitches into a desired sequence.  This is your 12-tone row, which will form the basis of your composition.  Fill in the first row of the grid with your 12-tone row.  Check to make sure that you have used each note exactly once.


    Original Row
    C A G D# E F D B A# G# C# F#
      Inverted Retrograde  
  3. Next, calculate the inversion of your row.  Do this by finding the inversion of each interval, and write the inverted row down the left column of your grid.

    Looking at the above example, the first interval is C to AA is a minor third down from C.  The inversion of this would be a minor third up from C, which is E-flat.  While not technically necessary, I like to keep all the accidentals the same; that is, using all sharps or all flats.  I find that this makes proofreading easier, and helps to avoid errors.  Since I've used sharps in my original row, I'll use D-sharp in my inverted row, which is enharmonically equivalent to E-flat.  (You can also write down both spellings of the chromatic pitches, such as D#/Eb.)

    The next interval in my original row is A to GG is a major second down from A, so in the inversion, you would calculate a major second up from D-sharp (E-flat), which is F.

    The resulting inverted row is as follows:

    Original Row
    C A G D# E F D B A# G# C# F#
      Inverted Retrograde  

    Double-check your inverted row to make sure you have used each note exactly once.
  4. Fill in your grid by transposing your 12-tone row into each key listed down the left column of the grid.


    Original Row
    C A G D# E F D B A# G# C# F#
    D# C A# F# G G# F D C# B E A
    F D C G# A A# G E D# C# F# B
    A F# E C C# D B G# G F A# D#
    G# F D# B C C# A# G F# E A D
    G E D A# B C A F# F D# G# C#
    A# G F C# D D# C A G# F# B E
    C# A# G# E F F# D# C B A D G
    D B A F F# G E C# C A# D# G#
    E C# B G G# A F# D# D C F A#
    B G# F# D D# E C# A# A G C F
    F# D# C# A A# B G# F E D G C
      Inverted Retrograde  

    This is your palette.  Reading from left to right, you have your original row in all 12 keys.  Reading from top to bottom, you have the inversion of your row.  Reading from right to left gives you the retrograde of your row, and reading from bottom to top gives you the inverted retrograde.

    Again, you can spot-check your work by making sure any given row contains exactly 12 distinct pitches.
  5. Using the palette that you have created, write your composition.  The following rules apply:

    1. Select any row in your palette:  original, inverted, retrograde, or inverted retrograde.
    2. Once you begin a row, you must follow it to completion:  you must play all the pitches in order, you may not skip any pitches, and you may not repeat any pitches.
    3. Notes may occur in any octave any may last any duration.  You may begin two or more notes simultaneously, as long as they occur sequentially in the row.
    4. Any number of rows may be played concurrently.

    The following is a simple example of a composition based on the above palette.  Click the Play button at the top of the page to listen to the example.

Leave a comment

great stuff you are a boss lolololo trolltrolltroll
Posted by ggg on Monday, March 21, 2016
Sure, if you like, the audio file is located here:
Posted by Carolyn on Wednesday, March 16, 2016
This is fantastic and very well done, thanks so much for helping me understand this concept. Is there any way you can supply a download for the audio file of the example composition? I would love to have it to bring into my DAW software i use to compose to compare against my own 12 tone composition. Thanks!
Posted by Andy B on Wednesday, March 16, 2016
this article was very helpful and informative. Thank you very much. And the piece you made is really good
Posted by Brandon on Friday, February 12, 2016
Learning this stuff at uni, couldn't get my head around the rules until I saw your coloured diagram, made it much easier to comprehend. So cheers!
Posted by Cal on Sunday, June 7, 2015

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