|(do something) oneself|
|about this much|
|by the end of today|
|good-bye; please excuse me; sorry to interrupt; May I? (I'm afraid I'll be disturbing you)|
|I'm sorry. (casual)|
|in class; during class|
|letter of recommendation|
|road; street; way; path; course; route; lane|
|the other day|
michi ni mayou
|to become lost; to lose one's way|
|to come to pick up (someone)|
|to fix, to correct|
|to gather; to collect; to assemble|
|to get depressed|
|to have difficulty|
airon o kakeru
|to iron (clothes)|
|to miss (a train, bus, etc.) (～に)|
|to put (something) in (thing を place に)|
|to show (someone) around|
|to take (someone) to (a place) (person を place に)|
|to take something out; to put forth; produce, issue; generate; to hand in (something); to publish; to make public|
|to translate (source を target に)|
|to treat (someone) to a meal (casual) (person に meal を)|
|to wake (someone) up|
|well...; let me see...|
Do Something for Someone: ～てくれる/～てあげる/～てもらう
Chapter 14 introduced the verbs くれる, あげる, and もらう to describe transactions of things. In this chapter, these will be used has helping verbs. When these follow the て-form of a verb, they describe the giving and receiving of services.
|て-form + あげる||
I do something for you.
You do something for others.
I do something for others.
Somebody does something for someone else.
|て-form + くれる||
Someone does something for me.
You do something for me.
Someone does something for you.
The て-form + あげる is used when we do something for others, or when somebody does something for someone else. The addition of the helping verb あげる does not change the basic meaning of the sentence, but puts focus on the fact that the action was performed "on demand" or "as a favor".
I (generously) lent money to my sister (to help her out).
In あげる sentences, the noun referring to the beneficiary of the action is accompanied by whatever particle is called for by the main verb. 貸す takes the particle に, while 連れて行く takes the particle を. These particles are retained in あげる sentences. When you want to add the idea of "doing someone a favor" to a verb which does not have a place for the beneficiary, you can use ～のために.
I went shopping for Tomoko.
くれる is used when someone does something for us. As with あげる, it does not change the basic meaning of the sentence, but adds a connotation of gratitude or acknowledgement of a favor done.
A friend helped me with my homework (for which I am grateful).
The beneficiary in くれる sentences is almost always understood to be the speaker, and therefore is not usually stated.
The て-form + もらう is used to say that we get, persuade, or arrange for, someone to do something for us. In other words, we "receive" someone's favor. The person performing the action for us is accompanied by the particle に.
I got a friend of mine to help me with my homework.
Making Requests: From Polite to Casual
There are a number of ways to make a request, all of which follow the て-form the verb, that vary in their degree of politeness. These are summarized as follows, and listed in order of decreasing politeness:
|～ていただけませんか||Comes from いただける, the potential form of いただく, "to receive (something or a favor) from someone higher up." Appropriate to use when requesting a favor from a nonpeer or from a stranger.|
|～てくださいませんか||Comes from くださる, "somebody higher up gives me (a thing or favor)." ください is historically a truncation of くださいませんか.|
|～てもらえませんか||Comes from もらえる, the potential form of もらう.|
|～てくれませんか||Comes from くれる. Roughly equal in degree of politeness to ください. This is probably the form most appropriate in the host-family context.|
|～てもらえない？||From もらえる, in the short form.|
|～てくれない？||From くれる, in the short form. Very casual. Can be used when speaking with members of your peer group.|
I Hope: ～といい
You can use the present tense short form + といいですね to say that you hope something nice happens, when you are expressing a wish for the good luck of someone other than yourself.
I hope you find a good part-time job.
To say what you hope for your own good, you can use といいんですが. This shows the speaker's attitude is more tentative, and makes the sentence sound more modest.
I hope I can catch the eight o'clock train.
|verb, short form, present tense||といいですね。||I hope... (for you / for someone else)|
|といいんですが。||I hope... (for myself)|
To make an indirect request, that is, to say that I hope you do something for me, place てくれる before といいんですが, as in:
Sue, I hope you will come.
When you use the verb short/present with といいですね and といいんですが, this means that you are hoping that something nice happens. These patterns cannot be used in cases where you hope to do something which is under your control. In that case, you can usually turn the verb into the potential form, as in the following example:
I hope that I can go to college.
Verb Tense with ～時
The word 時 is used to describe when something happens or happened.
subordinate clause A 時、
main clause B。
|When A, B.|
The subordinate clause A always ends with a short form, either in the present tense or the past tense. The tense to use depends on the time at which clause A takes place, relative to the main event in clause B. If, at the time that event B takes place, A is current or yet to happen, use the present tense in A. If A has already taken place at the time of event B, use the past tense for A.
A in the present tense:
I will get the visa issued when I go to Tibet.
|A:||go to Tibet||チベットに行く時|
|B:||get the visa issued||ビサを取ります。|
When the visa is issued (main clause B), going to Tibet is still in the future. Therefore, the verb for subordinate clause A is in the present tense.
As long as event A occurs after event B, clause A gets the present tense, regardless of the tense of event B. This next example shows the main clause B in the past tense:
I had the visa issued when I went to Tibet.
Although both events have now occurred in the past, the relativity of the clauses in this example is the same as in the previous example: subordinate clause A happens after main event B. Therefore, clause A is still in the present tense. Note that this is different than English, in which both clauses are in the past tense.
If A is an action that describes an ongoing event during which main clause B takes or took place, the verb in A is in the ている form. In the example below, the phone call event (main clause B) occurs in the middle of watching TV (subordinate clause A).
I got a phone call from my friend while I was watching television.
A in the past tense:
If, at the time of the main event B, A is already in the past, use the past tense in A. Note that the past tense is used in clause A even when both events are yet to take place; it is the order of events that matters.
I will buy oolong tea when I go to China.
I bought oolong tea when I went to China.
In this example, subordinate clause A, going to China, happens before main event B, buying tea.
Apologizing with ～てすみませんでした
You use the て-form of a verb + すみませんでした to describe something you have done for which you would like to apologize.
I am sorry for using foul language.
I'm sorry I stood you up.
When you want to apologize for something that you have failed to do, you use ～なくて, the short, negative て-form of a verb.
I am sorry for not bringing the homework.
I'm sorry I didn't tell you earlier.