Carogine is a phonetic script used to write the English language.  Derived from Tengwar and the Modern English alphabet, Carogine is composed of 24 consonants, 3 vowel carriers, and 14 diacritics.

As a phonetic script, words in Carogine are written according to how they sound, rather than how they are traditionally spelled.  For example, “cat” would be spelled with a “k”, while “ceramic” would start with an “s”.  Likewise, “go” would be spelled with a “g”, while “gentle” would begin with “j”.

Carogine introduces 6 letters not found in the Engligh alphabet:

The remaining consonants in Carogine have the same names as their Modern English counterparts.

Vowels in Carogine are represented by diacritical marks written above the consonant that follows, or over a vowel carrier.

The following charts illustrate the Carogine letter or symbol, the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) symbol representing its pronunciation, and a sample word with the corresponding sound highlighted.


Carogine IPA Example
b b ball
c chip
d d dog
f f fox
g g get
h h hill
j just
k k kite
l l last
m m man
n n no
N ŋ song
p p pen
r r run
s s sew
S ʃ she
t t to
T θ think
R ð this
v v very
w w will
y j yes
z z zoo
Z ʒ azure

Vowels and Diphthongs

A vowel is represented by placing a diacritical mark over the consonant that follows it, or over a vowel carrier.  The primary vowel carrier [o] is used at the end of words, and when successive vowels occur within a word.  The other two vowel carriers [i] and [u] are used with diphthongs, as shown below.  There are 10 vowel diacritics.


Carogine IPA Example
ô ɑ, ɔ father, all
ō e, eɪ ale, eight
ó i eat, pizza
o, oʊ own, note
O u to, boot
ȏ æ at, can
ŏ ɛ end, bet
P ɪ if, sit
U ə, ʌ up, but
Q ʊ hook, should


Carogine IPA Example
î eye, try
ɔɪ oil, joy
û out, now

Vowel Combinations With R

Carogine IPA Example
A ɑr are, star
B ɪər ear, fear
C ɔr or, soar
D ʊər poor, tour
E ær arrow, marriage
F ɛər air, spare
G ɜr earn, fir

Vowel carriers are named after the Latin letters they resemble (o, i, u).  The names of the diacritical marks are as follows:

1 fluer*
2 macron
3 acute
4 right curl
5 left curl
6 inverted breve
7 breve
8 overring*
9 comma above
0 underdot

* A fluer may be represented by three dots [o], and an overdot [p] may be substituted for the overring.

Consonant Diacritics

Consonant diacritics provide an optional shorthand for common usage patterns.  Carogine has four consonant diacritics.

1. Diaresis Below

A diaeresis below [ =] is used to represent a preceding [y] sound, which occurs before the vowel modifying the same character, as in:

D yes
E you
F year
G young

When used in combination with the underdot, the diaeresis is placed beneath the vowel diacritic.

When preceded by a vowel, the [y] is written out.

t reunite
s beyond

2. Tilde Below

A tilde below [ %] is used to represent a preceding [w] sound, which occurs before the vowel modifying the same character, as in:

f week
g where
j one
h question

When used in combination with the underdot, the tilde is placed beneath the vowel diacritic.

When preceded by a vowel, the [w] is written out.

w awake
b anywhere
c everyone

3. Underscore

An underscore [ -] is used to indicate a preceding nasal consonant ([m], [n] or [ng]), which follows the vowel modifying that character, as in:

H and
I think
J convenient

The underscore may represent [n] or [ng] before any consonant, but it represents [m] only preceding [b] or [p].

K member
L empty

The underscore is written above any other diacritics that may occur beneath the character.

4. Undercurl

A following [s] or [z] sound is indicated by a curl extending downward to the right [ q]/[ W], originating from the right corner of the letter.

M fox
O loves
P understand

When [m], [n] or [ng] is followed by [s] or [z], the undercurl takes precedence.

Q insert
U turns


“The” is abbreviated R.

The underdot or comma may be omitted when preceding the letter [l], if it does not occur at the beginning of the word.

r beautiful

Expanded or Syllabic Mode

The primary vowel carrier may be used instead of placing the diacritic over the following consonant.  This can be useful in any situation where the division of syllables is important, such as hyphenation or music notation.  It may be employed per character as needed.  For example, A becomes B or C.


Words in Carogine are generally not capitalized.  Capitals, if used, may serve as a decorative element, such as in headers and at the beginning of paragraphs.  Capitals are shown below.

b b
c c
d d
f f
g g
h h
j j
k k
l l
m m
n n
p p
r r
s s
t t
v v
w w
y y
z z
o o
i i
u u


Apostrophes denoting possession or contraction are not used in Carogine.  All other punctuation is identical to that used in Modern English.

Writing with Carogine

While it may be printed, Carogine was specifically designed as a cursive script.  Letters may be joined with either a low connector beginning at the baseline, or a high connector which scoops just below the minim height.

The letters [v], [w], [b], [l], and [o] join with a high connector.  All other letters join with a low connector.  A more detailed look at how letters combine begins with an analysis of the various shapes represented.

Classification of Consonants

Carogine consonants are regularly shaped, and may be classified according to the following 3 categories:

  1. Number of Bows
    1. single
    2. double
  2. Minim Shape
    1. open top
    2. closed top
    3. open bottom
    4. closed bottom
  3. Extender
    1. no extender
    2. leading ascender
    3. trailing ascender
    4. leading descender
    5. trailing descender
a b c d e
1 v b s   y
2 c   d   g
3 n h   t z
4 N f   p  
a b c d e
1 w l S   j
2 r        
3 m k   T Z
4       R  

Joining Letters

Characters of type 1a and 1b (v, w, b, l), together with the vowel carrier [o], join with a high connector.  V

Type 2 characters with no descender (2a, 2c) (c, r, d ), together with the vowel carriers [i] and [u] have a natural low connector.  W

Type 3 characters having no descender (3a, 3b) or a leading descender (3d) (n, h, t, m, k, T), take a low connector.  Y

Type 4 characters (N, f, p, R) have an upward curl when terminating a word.  When followed by another character, the curl is omitted and the baseline stroke flows into a low connector.  a

Characters of type e (y, g, z, j, Z) and type 1c (s, S) have no natural connector.  When these letters are followed by another, begin a low connector at the baseline. A e

Sample Text

The following example illustrates a passage of text transcribed into Carogine.

The Apostles’ Creed

I believe in God, the Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth, and in Jesus Christ, his only Son, our Lord, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary, suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, died and was buried; he descended into hell; on the third day he rose again from the dead; he ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of God the Father almighty; from there he will come to judge the living and the dead.  I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy catholic Church, the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, the resurrection of the body, and life everlasting.  Amen.

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